Single-phase, Liquid Immersion Cooling Solutions

for Data Centers, Colocation Facilities, & Central Offices

A closed system with 8x 850W blade servers operating in a 4U footprint.  The system supports up to 2kW of heat rejection per device (up to 16kW per 4RU) utilizing Engineered Fluids' ElectroCool Dielectric Coolant flowing at 1L/kW/min @5psi.

Data Center and colocation operators face a serious challenge in how to keep their facilities relevant in the face of faster and hotter compute platforms. 

 

The latest CPUs, GPUs, and servers are getting both smaller in footprint, faster in processing, and therefore substantially hotter than ever before. 

 

Traditional methods of air-cooling can no longer keep pace with thermal management requirements of these new devices. 

 

In addition, the space, complexity, maintenance, capital and operating costs of a traditional CRAC retrofit destroys margins while not even buying enough head-room to ever recover the investment.

What is needed is an entirely new approach to data center cooling.  An approach that:

 

  • Enables PUEs of 1.03-1.05 without exotic locations, engineering, or hyper scale

  • Reduces capital investment by up to 40%

  • IT Room footprints up to 80%

  • and Operating costs by up to 50%

  • While enabling off the shelf servers to achieve NEBs compliance with no additional engineering.

Single-phase, Liquid Immersion Cooling, known as SLIC is the solution.

SLIC is simple to deploy, operate, and maintain.  There is no other data center cooling solution available that enables up to 1500kW/sq.ft of cooling & power in only 1,500sq.ft of IT space.  SLIC can support over 200kW per rack and up to 96 blade servers in a 56RU rack, while also delivering a massive reduction in electrical power usage and on-going operating costs regardless of the number of servers deployed.

The future of 5G, AI, IoT, Mobile Edge Compute, Real-time services, Self-driving cars, Augmented Reality, Geophysical Engineering, and Movie and Graphics Rendering all rely on the use of GPUs and CPUs exceeding power densities from 250-500W per chip, in devices deployed in quantity right at the edge of the network.  SLIC is the only cooling solution that provides the ability to scale up or down on a linear cost and operations basis to enable these applications to live at the Edge.

What is a Single-Phase, Liquid Immersion Cooling?

SLIC is a simple, efficient, and inexpensive method of cooling electrical components, devices, and sub-systems by fully immersing the device directly into a single-phase dielectric heat transfer fluid that is either passively circulated by the natural convection of the heated coolant or actively circulated by pumping the dielectric coolant in, through and around the electrical device being cooled, and then transferring the heat absorbed by the coolant to a heat rejection device such as a radiator, dry cooler, liquid-to-liquid heat exchanger, or cooling tower.

Dielectric Strength Fluid Testing Jig

Suitable for use in open bath or closed systems.

Engineered Fluids ElectroCool Dielectric Coolants are designed to provide the safest, most cost effective thermal transfer characteristics on the market.

Single-phase

A single-phase coolant does not boil or undergo a phase change at anytime during the cooling process.  This completely eliminates all pressure, fumes, vapors, and corrosion due to micro-cavitation created by a coolant’s state transition from liquid to gas.

 

Liquid

The coolants used in SLIC solutions are Newtonian fluids that are circulated within the system at very low pressure and low flow rates using inexpensive, off-the-shelf hoses, pipes, pumps, and cooled with standard radiators, dry coolers, or heat exchangers.

Immersion

Direct immersion of electronics in a non-electrically conductive (dielectric) engineered coolant such that no protective cover, enclosure, coatings, or other means of insulation is required to be applied to the electrical circuits, chips, or device.

Cooling

The removal of thermal energy from a device through absorption into a high capacity dielectric coolant for transmission to a heat rejection device or heat reuse appliance through the circulation of the coolant without the use of compressors or phase change.

 

Single-phase vs Two-phase Dielectric Coolants

Dielectric Strength Fluid Testing Jig

The terms "single-phase" and "two-phase" refer to the behavior of the dielectric coolant as it is heated by the electronic devices.

A single-phase fluid remains in its liquid form during the entire cooling process, while a two-phase fluid undergoes a phase change and becomes a gas.  This difference is critical to understanding the design, operation, and potential hazards of your cooling solution.

At Engineered Fluids we specialize in single-phase, dielectric coolants for a number of reasons:

  • Single-phase coolants do not require a complex cooling infrastructure.  You can safely use them in open or closed systems, using common off-shelf pumps, piping, and heat rejection devices like heat exchangers, cooling towers, chillers, or dry coolers.                          

  • Single-phase coolants do not boil away and need to be replaced regularly.  In fact, our ElectroCool, AmpCool, and VoltCool Dielectric Coolants have a 25 year expected useful life, and are offered with an industry unique 5 and 10 year warranty!                                                                                                         

  • Our single-phase coolants have no vapor pressure, and therefore do not produce any smell during operation or storage.  In addition, since they cannot enter a gaseous or aerosol state, they cannot contaminate the air or the enviroment.  From a health and safety perspective this is critical, as it means you cannot inhale our coolants and they can never recondense and remain in your lungs, or form "a toxic dew" throughout your workplace.                                                                   

We believe that single-phase, liquid immersion cooling is simply most effective and safest approach to managing electronics heat rejection.

The boiling action of 2-phase coolants creates a dangerous mix of tremendous pressure, vapor, while actively destroying the devices it comes in contact with through micro-cavitation.

The dangers of two-phase Immersion Cooling...

For a two-phase fluid to operate effectively as a heat transfer fluid they must have a boiling point below the operating temperature of the device you are cooling because they remove heat through the phase process of transitioning from a liquid to gas.

 

The most common two-phase dielectrics belong to a group of chemicals called "fluorinated fluids."  Fluorinated fluids have relatively low boiling points, are extremely dense (often 2-3x that of water), and are very expensive.

 

Because of the process by which they cool and fluorinated fluids own chemical properties, there are a number of potential risks and dangers involved in two-phase Immersion Cooling:

  • Two-phase coolants can produce very high pressures in systems because they must transition to a gas and then be recondensed to remove heat from a system.  This requires a complex system with significant safety systems in place to ensure there is no build up of pressure, or that the coolant is simply boiled off into the workplace or environment.                                                                                                  

  • The boiling action of two-phase systems creates micro-cavitation which erodes the metals on the electronics devices you are cooling as well as the metal components of the cooling system.  This erosion can cause your electronic device to malfunction or fail due to broken trace and connectors.  In addition, your devices risk catastrophic failure, especially in power supplies, due to the build up of these eroded metallic particles in the coolant.  Eventually this metallic particle contamination destroys the dielectric strength of coolant causing shorting between systems.                                                                                    

  • Most two-phase cooling systems require water be brought directly into the data room to chill the condenser and remove the collected heat.  Anytime you have high pressure water in a data room you have a significant risk of failure.
                                                                              

  • Unlike single-phase coolants, two phase coolants will simply evaporate or boil away unless they are fully contained.  fluorinated fluids are very expensive and so is their replacement due to loss. 
                      

  • The other dangerous side effective of two-phase fluorinated coolants becoming an aerosol is that you can breath in these fumes and then they recondense in your lungs.  Because fluorinated fluids are heavier than water and are inert they can remain in your lungs long after you have been exposed.   In addition, these two-phase coolants will recondense on everything throughout the data room, leaving a "toxic dew" throughout your facility.                                                                                                                               

  • Again, unlike our single-phase coolants which have a Global Warming Potential of 0 (Yes, Zero!) fluorinated fluids have a GWP of over 9,000!   Just for comparison, carbon dioxide has a GWP of 1, and methane has a GWP of 56.                                 

Email Us

+1 725.218.1955

4548 Cantina Drive

Tyler, TX  75708 USA

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